The October Manifesto
- document issued by the emperor Nicholas II that in effect marked the end of unlimited autocracy in Russia and ushered in an era of constitutional monarchy.
- Threatened by the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Nicholas faced the choice of establishing a military dictatorship or granting a constitution.
- promised to guarantee civil liberties (e.g., freedom of speech, press, and assembly), to establish a broad franchise, and to create a legislative body whose members would be popularly elected and whose approval would be necessary before the enactment of any legislation.
- The manifesto satisfied enough of the moderate participants in the revolution to weaken the forces against the government and allow the revolution to be crushed.
- On April 23, 1906, the Fundamental Laws, which were to serve as a constitution, were promulgated.
- The Duma that was created had two houses rather than one, however, and members of only one of them were to be popularly elected
- the Duma had only limited control over the budget and none at all over the executive branch of the government.
- the civil rights and suffrage rights granted by the Fundamental Laws were far more limited than those promised by the manifesto.